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Institutional Structure and population  


Land surface: 1904.443 km2;
Territorial waters: 3.166.163 km2


Jakarta (13.3 mil. people) Main Cities: Surabaya (2.4 mil.), Bandung (2 mil.), Medan (1.7 mil.), Semarang (1.2 mil.)

Official Name:

Republic of Indonesia


Presidential Republic

Head of the State/Government:

Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (from 20 October 2004)

Ministry of Foreign Affairs:

Hassan Wirayuda  

Legislative system:

1) House of Representatives (DPR) formed by 550 elected members.
2) House of Provincial Representatives (DPD) constituted by 128 members (4 for every one of the 32 Indonesian provinces). Representatives of both chambers are elected for 5 year terms. The last political elections were held on 5 April 2004, and the new Parliament was seated on 1 October 2004. Both Chambers gather conjointly one time each year for discussing the most important issues for the country and for sanctioning the presidential investiture and the new executive. In that formation, they constitute the third legislative organ of the State:
3) Consultative assembly of the Population (MPR).     

Judicial System:

The judicial system is articulated on three levels: District Court, Court of Appeals and Supreme Court, with both civil and criminal jurisdiction. The Constitutional Court was established in 2004. 


238 mil. people

Demographic growth rate:


Ethnic groups:

94% of the population are ethnic Malays, 6% is composed of Melanesians (Papua and Timor) and Chinese settled in urban areas and whose presence, for the economy of the Country, is significant.    


About 85% of the population is Muslim, 10% Christian (7 million Catholics and 14 million protestants), the remainder include Hindus (in Bali), Buddhists, Confucians and Animists.


The National language is Bahasa Indonesia (of Malay root and, like Malay, using the Latin alphabet). English is diffused in economic, political and academic environments.    

Main Political Parties:

Golkar, ex-President Soeharto’s party: 127 seats in 2004, 118 in 1999; PDI-P, ex-President Megawati’s party: 109 seats in 2004, 153 in 1999; PPP, Islamic party: 58 seats; PD, party leaded by President Yudhoyono: 56 seats, PAN, Islamic party: 53 seats; PKB, ex President Wahid’s Islamic party; 52 seats; PKS, Islamic party: 45 seats.